Resuming the first volume of the book it is necessary to note the following moments. This research was targeted to the study of evolutional processes in the political system of Kazakhstan from the perspectives of methodology and scientific arsenal of the system approach. On the basis of the scheme worked out in the theoretical part of the book, the analysis of political system's features was made, as from the early forms of statehood existed on the territory of Kazakhstan. This is a retrospective analysis of the processes that led to the change of the structure and organization of political power of nomadic societies.
In the opinion of authors, the realization of research's goal helps to make a new look at the question on what type historically formated kazakh state formation should refer. An appliance of the systemic methodology allows to speak us about the specifics of the nomadic society's political system.
The thesis about the absence of the state in nomad socirties follows from the reducing its principles to generally accepted standards of the west or the east state. It's riot secret, such an approach has a tendentibusness, as far as the study of a phenomenon by means of simple Setting available theoretical construction to the possessing its specifics alive material of nomad society, undoubtedly led to anticipated result. An objective study of the nomad state particularities requires making another approach, which could play the role of sufficient and effective cognitive construction.
One of the new accepted scientific conceptions is the theory of nomadism, preliminary results of which shows that for nomadic state was distinctive an absence of not only the west, but also the east standards of the state structure. Similar results gives the using a system methodology, that possesses flexible and broad theoretical scheme.
In the opinion of authors, to greater understanding the nomadic state's nature helps its broad interpretation, when the study of a state conducted from standpoints of an idea of statehood. The notion of statehood does not belong to the state only, but considerably broader by meaning, as far as under it marked the whole system of people's relations in regard of their life organization in concrete-historical period of time. As to state organization of nomad society in the opinion of known researchers, a nature of nomadic society concluded in itself certain orderliness. On the cause of nomads of Central Asia L.N. Gumilev noted that this geographical wholeness, inhabitted by varied people, with different economic skills, religious, social founding arid dispositions, however has been felt by all neighbours as a certain unity, though contents of a dominant beginning neitheror ethnographers, nor historians and sociologists could define.
Unlike a state's traditional formation as a public-political power, a statehood of nomads distinguished a constant moving the separate social organisms within the one wholeness. The nomadic state forms a complex, inwardly differentiated system, which characterized by mobility. To some extent with the underestimation of mobility phenomenon a negation of a nomad state institution is bound, while the consideration of nomadic statehood in a close relation with the alive ethnosocial organism and space-territory limits of population's migration draws us near to authenticity and validity. According to historical data the earlier nomads state formations were leading and defining power of the whole steppe world, their influence spread to neighbour tribes and peoples, which has not achieved yet these states level. The analysis of the transformation of the political administration principles from the sakh and the uisun tribes, till the 1867-1868 reform that destroyed traditional system of authorities, also indicates the existance of integrating beginning in the nomad association of Kazakhs.
As a common foundation of nomad state was a necessity for political integration which saved ethnically identical tribes from mutual conflicts. Of course, such a political beginning was supported by integrity of culture and mode elements, characteristic for particular geographical length of space, occupied by getergene generality. Thereby, consideration of the nomadic kazakh society statehood finds an obvious presence of specific particularities in it, not reducable to the traditional west and east interpretations.
Exceeding mobility was a key feature to the state association. Phenomenon of «zhush division in a kazakh traditional society, ils relationship with the organization of administration, the strata of chingizids, which has played a direct role in the operation of institute of khans - those and other factors have influenced upon the political organization of kazakh nomad society.
Destniction of the traditional political system of kazakhs was connected with arrival to the steppe of a tzarist colonialism, f ollowing it the destruction of traditional social organization of kazakh society took place, wholly completed under the soviet rule. Role of colonization is really significant, but it had a particularity: it has taken a most finished form in Kazakhstan which expressed in changing a public structure, full perception of new for the society political institutes and even types of thinking. The main stress was on the administration bodies of the kazakh society, that was expressed in liquidation of the traditional institutes of khans, soultans, division to uluses and aimaks.
The soviet totalitarianizm has left an indelible trace in the evolution of the political system of Kazakhstan. In republic were reflected going from the centre Impulses of inforcement and weakening of totalitarian regime descended from the centre reflected in our republic, and with these deles activity connected three big stages of its existence. The most powerful in the stalinist period they soften in the Khrushchev thaw and took power at the period of brezhnev sluggishness.
Communist ideology penetrated all spheres of life, decisions of whole-union and republican party conventions and conferences made a tone and presented by itself a strategic program. Top of hierarchical system of administrative control finished on the Politburo CC CPSU and the Ministers Soviet of the USSR in Moscow, but CC of the Communist Party in Kazakhstan and the republican SovMin controlled a lower sections at a regional level. Such the same hierarchy distinguished an economy as far as the country was considered as an united industrial complex with the division of labor on republics and the common five-year plan. So, the political system of Kazakhstan was an integral part of the political system of USSR at this period, which is almost characterized by full absence of autonomous structural elements.
The world experience of modernization illustrates the importance of the combining of traditionality and modernity. Elements of traditionality are saved mostly in the people's mentality, in value orientations and installings of individuals, which marked by the term of political culture.
Conservatism of kazakhs is determined by previos nomadic lifestyle which under the whole external dynamism preserved internal essence of nomads as well as the tribal structure. Traditional society is conservative by its determination since its base lies in the past as the most important basis for person's identification with the society, outside the limits of which a separate individual has no value and can not exist. A nomadic society develops on the round-robin scheme, resisting to this ring's breakup, which ensures its survival and where the sense of their life is concluded. Kazakh nomadic society was ruined recently so an inherent to it conservatism has been saving in a public consciousness, alongside with the rest elements of traditionality. As an inherent traditional feature of kazakh's national character, influencing essentially upon the modem political process, one should point to corporativity.
We can concider as the flexibility indicators of the political system of kazakh society the traditions of human rights and liberties protection, existence of the institute of khans election, the institute of bi. As a result of broad dissemination of the practics of separate authority institutes election the self-production of power resources took place that raised receptivity of the elite to requirements of society, intensifying adaptability abilites of the political system, The specifics of authorities in Kazakh society also was in the practics that the carriers of power not were appointed and elected, but rather confessed, i.e. the title of a ruler was a well-earned honorable rank.
For the success of democratic transformation and approving a priority of human rights and liberties we need to account for the civilizational traditions and mentality of a kazakh people, which has a rich experience of original nomad’s democracy, respect and protection of personal and colective rights. Also it is necessary to activate the people's historical consciousness, creative combination of native and the world experience. Today it is important for us the formation of independent, autonomous individuals, which will be active actors of the building of the civil society and legal state.
All of it shows the importantance of combining of the traditional and the modem, which characterize the mentality of modern kazakhs.
So, in the first volume of the present edition the main features of the political organization of Kazakh society from the period of antiquities are considered. This research proves the difference of nomad society not only from the west, but also from the east type of statehood, which is expressed in specifics of principles of the state authorities organization, institutionalization of the power relations, traditions of political culture and e.c. Delimitation of general and especial, finding of central, uniting features of the political organization of nomad society - was one of the central goales of this research. Revealing the systemic features of political organization of Kazakhstan in the past and not so distant soviet period allows us to go over to the modem stage of posttotalitarian transformation of political system of Kazakhstan. That is a subject for study in a following volume of the book.